Rights of way maintenance

Information about who looks after public rights of way and how to report any issues.


Landowners, the council and the public each have responsibilities for rights of way. Read an overview on our duties and responsibilities of landowners and farmers page. The public can do their part by following the Countryside Code, closing gates, protecting plants and animals and taking litter home.

Our responsibilities

Outside of the two national parks, we have the largest network of public rights of way in the country with over 6100km of footpaths, bridleways, restricted byways and byways open to all traffic.

Our responsibilities include protecting the rights on the network and ensuring that landowners’ responsibilities are met, ensuring rights of way are signposted from the roadside and waymarked where necessary along the route, and maintaining the surface of the path. We are also responsible for most bridges, stepping-stones and fords on the network.  

Maintenance tasks that fall under our responsibility are taken care of by our officers, and a team of over 100 volunteers. This is some of the work our maintenance team does: 

  • install signposts and waymarks
  • repair and replace bridges
  • maintain path surfaces and clear undergrowth from the path surface
  • clear vegetation around stiles, gates, gaps, signposts and bridges
  • survey and maintain National Trails 
  • improve accessibility where funding is made available
  • liaise with landowners to ensure they meet their duties and responsibilities

For more information about our team of volunteers, and to see whether you can get involved, see our volunteering opportunities page.

Further information

How do I report a right of way issue?

We receive over 1900 reports of issues per year. Therefore, we prioritise our limited resources to resolving issues that pose the most significant risk and impact on network users.

We will investigate reports of issues considered dangerous and make them safe as soon as possible where this is our responsibility. The responsibility for issues relating to stiles, gates and obstructions lies with the landowner or tenant. In these circumstances, once identified, the person responsible will be informed and advised on what action needs to be taken.

Depending on the priority, complexity and resources required, issues can take a significant amount of time to resolve. We therefore cannot give timescales as to when the issue you have reported will be resolved.

We would encourage you to accompany your report with photos of issues as they can help us to identify locations and problems.

Report a public right of way issue

If you prefer, you can tell us about a public right of way issue anonymously, but we will not be able to get in contact with you if we require further information about the issue.

If you are not able to use our online form, you can contact us.

If you have any queries or issues with rights of way in the national parks please contact the rights of way teams in the relevant national park authority.


Dogs are allowed on public rights of way, but must be kept under close control. Intimidating dogs should be reported to us and the police.


It is normal to meet livestock when out in the countryside using the public rights of way network.  Adult beef bulls may be kept in fields crossed by public rights of way, as long as they are with cows or heifers. Dairy bulls, even if accompanied by cows or heifers, should never be kept on land crossed by a public right of way. Where you experience a problem, please let us know.

Cattle attacks are relatively rare. Follow these simple principles to reduce the risk:

  • always walk around cows with calves, as walking between them can be seen as a threat
  • if they approach, walk slowly and if you have a dog ensure it is at heel
  • if you feel threatened, let go of your dog as it can run faster than cattle and escape
  • if in doubt, do not enter the field

Crops, vegetation and surfacing

Farmers are entitled to plough public rights of way if it is not reasonably convenient to avoid them. This only applies to cross-field footpaths and bridleways.

The landowner is responsible for ensuring that a hedge does not overhang and obstruct a public right of way. If a right of way is obstructed by a fallen tree or large branch, responsibility for its removal lies with the tree owner. We are responsible for ensuring that vegetation on the surface of a right of way is kept under control and does not make the route difficult to use. Overgrowth of plants and shrubs alongside the path is the responsibility of the landowner.

We, as the highway authority, are responsible for the surface of all public rights of way - the landowner's interest only extends to the sub soil. If you need to dig up the surface to lay pipes or drains, for example, you should contact us first.

Gates, stiles, signs and bridges

It is the landowner's duty to ensure that stiles and gates are in good repair. Anyone wanting to install additional gates or stiles on footpaths or bridleways must apply to us in writing. A padlocked gate on a public right of way constitutes an obstruction; we have the right to remove it without consultation if the issue cannot be resolved.

Responsibility for bridges and culverts is shared between us and the landowner, and we are responsible for most footbridges. The rail authority is responsible for most footbridges over railway lines, while British Waterways is responsible for all bridges over the canal network.

All public rights of way should be signposted where they leave a road. We have an on-going programme of replacing missing and broken signposts. If you notice any, please let us know.

Other obstructions

Intimidating behaviour designed to stop the use of a public right of way may be an offence and may amount to obstruction of the path. Such issues should be reported to us. If the behaviour is a public nuisance, the police should also be told.

Owners and occupiers of land crossed by public rights of way can be liable for injuries caused by negligence. For example, if a stile were to collapse under a walker, or if someone was injured by an electric fence placed across a path, the injured party may pursue a claim. We are responsible for the right of way surface. In certain circumstances, we will be liable if the injury is due to a negligent act.

There should never be exposed barbed wire or electric fences across a public right of way without a means of crossing. Where a barbed wire or electric fence is alongside a right of way, it may be a danger. There should be electric fence warning signs at regular intervals.